Epidemic Disease

An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. For example, in meningococcal infections, an attack rate in excess of 15 cases per 100,000 people for two consecutive weeks is considered an epidemic.[1][2] Epidemics of infectious disease are generally caused by several factors including a change in the ecology of the host population (e.g., increased stress or increase in the density of a vector species), a genetic change in the pathogen reservoir or the introduction of an emerging pathogen to a host population (by movement of pathogen or host). Generally, an epidemic occurs when host immunity to either an established pathogen or newly emerging novel pathogen is suddenly reduced below that found in the endemic equilibrium and the transmission threshold is exceeded.[3] An epidemic may be restricted to one location; however, if it spreads to other countries or continents and affects a substantial number of people, it may be termed a pandemic.[1] The declaration of an epidemic usually requires a good understanding of a baseline rate of incidence; epidemics for certain diseases, such as influenza, are defined as reaching some defined increase in incidence above this baseline.[2] A few cases of a very rare disease may be classified as an epidemic, while many cases of a common disease (such as the common cold) would not.

  • covid 19 corona protection
    Covid-19,  Epidemic Disease

    Protect yourself: advice for the public

    You can reduce your chances of being infected or spreading COVID-19 by taking some simple precautions: Regularly and thoroughly clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water. Why? Washing your hands with soap and water or using alcohol-based hand rub kills viruses that may be on your hands. Maintain at least 1 metre (3 feet) distance between yourself and others. Why? When someone coughs, sneezes, or speaks they spray small liquid droplets from their nose or mouth which may contain virus. If you are too close, you can breathe in the droplets, including the COVID-19 virus if the person has the disease. Avoid…

  • Questions and answers corona covid 19
    Covid-19,  Epidemic Disease

    Corona Virus Questions and answers(Covid-19)

    What is a coronavirus? Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses which may cause illness in animals or humans. In humans, several coronaviruses are known to cause respiratory infections ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The most recently discovered coronavirus causes coronavirus disease COVID-19. What is COVID-19? COVID-19 is the infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus. This new virus and disease were unknown before the outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. COVID-19 is now a pandemic affecting many countries globally. What are the symptoms of COVID-19? The most common…

  • Shopping for Food During the COVID-19 Pandemic - Information for Consumers
    Covid-19,  Epidemic Disease

    Shopping for Food During the COVID-19 Pandemic – Information for Consumers

    As grocery shopping remains a necessity during this pandemic, many people have questions about how to shop safely. We want to reassure consumers that there is currently no evidence of human or animal food or food packaging being associated with transmission of the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. This particular coronavirus causes respiratory illness and is spread from person-to-person, unlike foodborne gastrointestinal or GI viruses, such as norovirus and hepatitis A that often make people ill through contaminated food. Although your grocery store may be temporarily out of certain products, there are no nationwide shortages of food. Food production and manufacturing are spread throughout the United States. During this pandemic, consumers…

  • What goes into the toilet doesn’t always stay there, and other coronavirus risks in public bathrooms
    Covid-19,  Epidemic Disease

    What goes into the toilet doesn’t always stay there, and other coronavirus risks in public bathrooms

    Most public restrooms are grungy in the best of times. Now, we have the coronavirus risk to contend with, too. There are lots of risks – dirty sinks and door handles, airborne particles and other people in small, enclosed spaces who may or may not be breathing out the coronavirus. So, how do you stay safe when you’re away from home and you’ve really got to go? As a medical doctor and epidemiologist, I study infectious diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract. Here are four things to pay attention to when it comes to any public restroom. What goes into the toilet doesn’t always stay there Have you ever thought about…

  • Cleaning and hygiene tips to help keep the COVID-19 virus out of your home
    Covid-19,  Epidemic Disease

    Cleaning and hygiene tips to help keep the COVID-19 virus out of your home

    Can you catch the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) from food? How should I do laundry now? Mundane household tasks have turned into a source of uncertainty and anxiety as families grapple with getting the basics done all while keeping their loved ones safe and healthy. Widespread misinformation about the virus puts everyone at risk and adds to the stress of having to filter fact from fiction. While research into the COVID-19 virus is ongoing, we know the virus is transmitted through direct contact with respiratory droplets of an infected person (through coughing and sneezing), and touching surfaces contaminated with the virus. The virus may survive on surfaces for a few hours…

  • Coronavirus and Cleaning
    Covid-19,  Epidemic Disease

    Coronavirus and Cleaning

    What is Coronavirus According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), coronaviruses are a large family of viruses, some of which already circulate among humans and cause mild illness, like the common cold. The virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new strain first identified in China. Health experts continue to learn more about this new strain. The virus has symptoms associated with respiratory illnesses, including fever, cough and shortness of breath. It seems to spread like other respiratory illnesses as well, primarily through person-to-person contact. Preventing Coronavirus At this time, the differing parts of the U.S. are experiencing different levels of novel coronavirus activity and…

  • COVID-19 coronavirus: do you need to disinfect your home?
    Covid-19,  Epidemic Disease

    COVID-19 coronavirus: do you need to disinfect your home?

    it’s washing our hands to protect against coronavirus. Antibacterial wipes, hand santisers and soaps are flying off the shelves as everyone pays extra care to keeping themselves germ-free. Coronavirus: How to disinfect your house if someone you live with has it If you live with somebody who has been showing symptoms of COVID-19, giving your house a good clean is one of the best things you can do to keep you and the rest of your family safe. Read our guide below to see how you can do just that. Disinfect those high-touch surfaces It’s already been drilled into us to avoid touching our faces as this is one way…

  • Groceries and COVID-19
    Covid-19,  Epidemic Disease

    Groceries and COVID-19

    Currently, there is no evidence that COVID-19 can be transmitted by food or food packaging. However, it is always important to follow good hygiene practices when handling or preparing foods. You should always wash your hands and surfaces often, separate raw meat from other foods, cook to the right temperature and put food in the fridge as soon as you can. Food shopping advice Please don’t go shopping if you have COVID-19 symptoms. You can order your groceries online or have some family or friends drop them off instead. When you go food shopping, you should wash your hands before you leave the house, avoid touching your face when you’re…